Enlightenment of environmental monitoring system i

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The Enlightenment of environmental monitoring system in developed countries and regions to China

the organizational structure and development process of developed countries and regions such as the United States, the European Union and Japan, summarizes the characteristics of environmental monitoring system in developed countries and regions. This paper analyzes the Enlightenment of the environmental monitoring system of developed countries and regions to China, and puts forward to strengthen the legislative work of environmental monitoring and improve the standards of environmental monitoring methods; Strengthen the construction of market-oriented mechanism of environmental monitoring; "Make up for shortcomings", improve and other policy suggestions

1 system of environmental monitoring in developed countries and regions

1.1 environmental monitoring system in the United States

due to the early industrialization, environmental monitoring began in the United States at the end of the 19th century, and the leading organization was from the initial health department to the establishment of the national environmental protection agency; The monitoring items have changed from routine monitoring to the monitoring of key toxic and harmful components, and currently focus on the monitoring of "three toxicants" (carcinogenesis, teratogenesis and mutagenicity) and indoor microenvironment; The monitoring field has formed the current monitoring network from the initial water quality and atmospheric monitoring; The monitoring concept is gradually formed, and quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) run through the whole process of data collection, processing and storage, aiming to ensure the accuracy and reliability of analytical data. The United States has a sound environmental monitoring system, and the National Environmental Protection Agency has five professional offices responsible for leading regional offices. The professional office has a professional monitoring technology research institute, which is the technology research and development, data collection, network control center, and provides reference for the formulation of regulations of the State Environmental Protection Administration (Figure 1). The funds for environmental monitoring are sufficient, and only routine monitoring is guaranteed to be more than US $300million per year. More than 50% of the funds are used for monitoring and technology research and development, paying attention to the technical research and development of high-end and portable instruments, and the rest is spent on the control of pollution sources. The monitoring staff is sufficient, and the monitoring technology research institute has consultants, contract consultants and interns. Environmental monitoring in the United States pays special attention to quality assurance, which runs through all links of environmental monitoring. A professional department (environmental monitoring quality assurance room) specialized in quality assurance is set up to ensure that the measurement of data must have a clear purpose and detailed plan

1.2 EU environmental monitoring system

the predecessor of the EU is the European community, which initially only involved the economic and trade fields. With the frequent occurrence of environmental accidents, the European community began to take unified action in the field of environment in 1970, and the EU environmental monitoring system has also been continuously improved, from atmospheric and water environmental monitoring to radiation environmental monitoring. At present, the environmental monitoring and governance capacity of the European Union has a leading position in the world's environmental development. The environmental situation of most countries is close to the early stage of the development of industrialized society. Ecological resources have been restored and pollution has been treated. Among them, legislation and standardization of monitoring methods are the two major means adopted by EU environmental monitoring. In terms of legislation, the EU has a comprehensive legal system, including more than 500 decrees and regulations. For example, in the field of water environment, the decree involves monitoring objectives, pollutant sources and control, and the standardization of monitoring reports. In terms of the standardization of monitoring methods, the European Commission for standards is responsible for formulating them and translating them into the internal standards of Member States (Figure 2). The unified monitoring methods make the monitoring data of Member States comparable and operable. In addition, the EU has two monitoring networks and information disclosure systems between and within member states, as well as strict pollution discharge and law enforcement standards, making EU environmental monitoring in the forefront of the world

1.3 Japan's environmental monitoring system

around 1950, Japan began to have serious environmental pollution problems. In 1967, Japan formulated the basic law on pollution prevention, which started the process of environmental monitoring. At first, the environmental law stipulated that polluting enterprises had the obligation to monitor the air, water quality, noise and other pollution sources. However, due to the monitoring needs to invest a lot of technology and equipment, and it is obviously unlikely that all pollution sources in the country have their own monitoring facilities. In this situation, environmental monitoring notarization (Analysis Center) has emerged, and enterprises have joined the monitoring team in succession. At present, environmental monitoring has been carried out in all prefectures of Japan. The organizational forms of environmental monitoring mainly include environmental provinces, local autonomous bodies and other provincial departments (Figure 3). The Ministry of environment is the national environmental administrative department of Japan. It has its own monitoring system to assist local autonomous bodies in environmental research, investigation, purchase of instruments and other work, and unify monitoring standards at the same time. Other provincial departments and local autonomous bodies regularly report the monitoring status and provide relevant data to the Ministry of environment. Both the Ministry of environment and local autonomous bodies should release monitoring information to the society in a timely manner. In addition to the local autonomous bodies, other provincial departments responsible for environmental monitoring include the Ministry of land and transportation, the Ministry of health, labor, agriculture, forestry and fisheries, and market-oriented monitoring enterprises. The Ministry of land and transportation has road bureaus, river bureaus, automobile transportation bureaus, etc. specializing in corresponding environmental monitoring. The Ministry of health, labor and welfare focuses on the monitoring of substances harmful to human body, and the Ministry of agriculture, forestry and fisheries is mainly responsible for the monitoring of agricultural pollution. In order to ensure scientific and reliable monitoring, Japan has a professional metrological certification body: the Ministry of economy, trade and industry, and the monitoring data must pass its certification with certificates

2 what is the reason for the slippage of the fixture of the testing machine in developed countries? And the characteristics of regional environmental monitoring

2.1 advanced environmental monitoring management concepts

advanced management concepts in developed countries and regions determine their environmental monitoring status and implementation effect. The quality control and quality assurance proposed in American environmental monitoring run through the whole process of sample collection, transportation, processing, determination, and data processing and analysis, aiming to prevent errors in a certain link, resulting in large monitoring errors. At the same time, a national environmental monitoring conference will be held every year to enhance the contact and communication between the State Environmental Protection Administration and monitoring organizations, institutions, communities and the public. Moreover, the United States has a strong environmental protection association, which plays an important role in sample collection, monitoring and supervision of environmental monitoring. The EU has the most perfect legislation and detailed monitoring standards, which are the premise of effective environmental monitoring and the basis of strict law enforcement. In addition, the EU has established two sets of monitoring networks between and within member states, which promote and complement each other, which is conducive to promoting the overall management of the EU joint prevention and control. In Japan, it is difficult to formulate and promulgate general laws, which are often opposed by many opponents and difficult to reach an agreement. However, the legislative work of environmental protection is progressing very smoothly, mostly because environmental agencies attach importance to the publicity of environmental protection concepts. At the same time, Japan's original establishment of a monitoring data certification body fully demonstrates its emphasis on environmental monitoring and advanced management concepts

2.2 perfect environmental monitoring system and mechanism

developed countries and regions have perfect systems and good operating mechanisms for environmental monitoring. Legislation, standardization of monitoring methods and monitoring complement each other. 5g network in the United States is really coming. It has many environmental monitoring laws and regulations, a series of monitoring standard methods, and an environmental monitoring database. The local data will be sorted out by the local environmental protection department and summarized to the National Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and reported to the Congress for approval. The United States is a multi department cooperation mechanism led by EPA, which pays attention to the market-oriented operation mode. Most of the monitoring tasks are undertaken by the market, and the government is basically not directly responsible for daily monitoring. Access is very broad. Any unit, enterprise or even individual can participate in environmental monitoring, but it has a complex certification system to ensure the accuracy of environmental monitoring. In terms of legislation and standardization of monitoring methods, the EU has the most complete legal and standard system for environmental protection and monitoring in the world, and has a unique monitoring network to complement and promote each other to ensure the accuracy and reliability of monitoring data. Each member state has its own monitoring system according to regulations, regularly reports monitoring data and accepts the supervision of the European Commission. Japan's environmental legislation is relatively smooth, and the Japanese industrial standard (JIS) formulates monitoring standards in various environmental fields according to relevant laws. The monitoring system is in the charge of the Ministry of environment, with the assistance of local autonomous bodies and other provincial departments and organizations, to effectively use private funds and improve the efficiency of public services. In Japan, as long as non-governmental organizations have the ability of monitoring technology and believe that the monitoring work is beneficial, they can apply for business licenses from the Ministry of environment or local autonomous bodies for full market-oriented operation, but they should regularly report to the local autonomous bodies and receive the supervision of the local autonomous bodies and the public at the same time

2.3 sound monitoring network

monitoring items are an important symbol to reflect the monitoring level of a country or region. Developed countries and regions have developed environmental monitoring earlier, and the environmental monitoring network is relatively sound. The monitoring items are comprehensive, the monitoring coverage area is wide, and the technology is advanced. It includes not only routine monitoring, but also monitoring ozone, and some carcinogens and other items related to human health. The monitoring projects in the United States have been refined, such as radioactive substances, chlorinated pesticides, and the toxic effects of industrial wastewater on organisms in water quality monitoring. Its monitoring network has a wide range and strong strength, and pays attention to the construction of automatic monitoring facilities, while increasing the frequency of manual monitoring. For example, water quality monitoring should not only monitor sewage, wastewater and supply water, but also monitor all major water systems in the country that have not been polluted. The heavy workload urges them to distinguish the key points and points and improve work efficiency. The two sets of monitoring of EU environmental monitoring support each other and supervise each other at the same time. Due to the small area of each member state, its monitoring points are densely set, which greatly ensures the accuracy of monitoring. The monitoring projects are very extensive and the technology is mature. It can be used as a reference for China in monitoring radiation, soil and black carbon. There are various forms of monitoring organizations in Japan. Local autonomous bodies are responsible for routine project monitoring, while other provincial departments are responsible for different types of monitoring projects. The Ministry of agriculture, forestry and fisheries is specifically responsible for monitoring the soil, water quality, atmosphere, ocean and ecological environment caused by agriculture. After the 2011 earthquake, special attention is paid to the monitoring of the impact of radiation on soil

2.4 advanced technical equipment

technology is the best way to drive the efficiency of environmental monitoring. It can not only avoid the untimely and low efficiency of manual sampling, but also carry out real-time monitoring and save labor costs. Developed countries and regions pay special attention to technology research and development to improve monitoring efficiency. The advancement of technology and equipment is the fundamental reason why US environmental monitoring has always been ahead of the world. The US Environmental Protection Agency has a research and development office, which focuses on the technological research and development of new technologies and equipment. Continuous improvement of monitoring technology has always been a necessary means for its development of environmental monitoring, and gradually realize refinement and miniaturization. Pay attention to the impact of environmental pollution on the human body. Portable devices installed on volunteers can directly measure the impact of the environment on the human body. In addition, the use of optical fiber technology to determine organic matter in water, instrument to determine air pollutants, etc. In Japan, more than 40 prefectural administrative regions have set up special institutions for environmental scientific research and monitoring, such as the National Institute of public hazards, the Institute of resource public hazards, etc. The Institute is not only engaged in environmental monitoring, but also pays special attention to the mechanism analysis of sudden environmental problems. Pay attention to precision management and strengthen the analysis and research of micro technology. At the same time, there is an extensive cooperative research mechanism with colleges and universities, which closely combines actual monitoring and research work, and constantly improves the level of monitoring technology

2.5 social participation and information

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